Missing from the publishing history of this novel until now and probably unknown even to Dillwyn herself1 was the fact that in the very same year that the novel was published in London by Macmillan, it also appeared in Russian translation. Dillwyn was issued as a supplement to the radical journal Otechestvennye zapiski Notes of the Fatherland in Chloe has not aged well. Consequently, the main focus of this essay will be the publication of The Rebecca Rioter in Russia. It was common for foreign literature to be published in the Russian periodical press, but works considered subversive or seditious were often subject to heavy censorship.
The riots broke out again in , becoming more organised and more violent as they spread east to Carmarthenshire and Glamorgan. By , the class and nationalist dimensions were obvious. The struggle became one of poor against rich as industrial workers and labourers joined the ranks of farmers and there was an attack on the Workhouse in Carmarthen.
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A nationalist dimension was implicit in the inclusion of church tithes in the list of grievances, and the rioters sought deliberately to remove Englishmen from positions of power over them. The Rebecca Riots followed the agitations of the Chartists, who had been particularly active in the industrial areas of Wales. The government took fright at its failure except in the case of the Pontardulais riot to apprehend the leaders of the Rebecca Riots — their agents frustrated by the barrier of the Welsh language and the uncooperative locals. Dillwyn was writing almost forty years after the event, but many of the original rioters were still alive and the stories of the riots continued to be told regularly in the area.
The Rebecca Riots are presented as a nationalist revolt, pitting the maternal, Welsh Rebecca who becomes a personification of Wales against the selfish English monarch, Victoria. Most importantly, however, she was deeply troubled by social injustice and frustrated by the failure of her privileged class to live up to what she viewed as its duties towards the poor.
The diaries kept by the young Amy Dillwyn in the s record her strong sense of Christian duty and note regular visits to the poor and sick, including houses infected with the cholera. Dillwyn taught at Cilay [sic] Sunday school and set up her own class to teach literacy to local girls and occasionally boys inviting a comparison between her own efforts and those of the benevolent Gwenllian Tudor in The Rebecca Rioter. While many British novels were published in Russian translations in the nineteenth century, it is difficult to imagine The Rebecca Rioter appearing in Russia at any other moment in the history of that country than the early s, and in any other publication than Otechestvennye zapiski.
Earlier in the century, Russians who had picked up enlightenment and Romantic ideas while abroad in Europe were prevented from implementing them on their return to Russia by the repressive regime of Tsar Nicholas I. An assassination attempt in led to a crackdown on radical groups, and the period between this and the final successful effort at assassination in the year after Revekka was published in Russia was marked by an increasingly aggressive cycle of reaction and rebellion.
Above all else, these writers wished to see the genuine political and spiritual emancipation of the Russian serfs with whose sweat and blood they saw their own privilege as having been bought. Crucially, they considered that this was attainable without the need to follow Western Europe down the route of capitalism and bourgeois philistinism. The appeal of Otechestvennye zapiski was very wide. It was read by generals and foresters, actresses and doctors, clerks and ministers, students and terrorists. It seems fair to assume that Chloe Arguelle would have appealed much more to the fashionable society of St.
Petersburg and Moscow than to a penniless student from the provinces. The case was probably rather different for The Rebecca Rioter, the message of which, even in its censored form, would most likely have struck a chord with a great many of the Russians who were actively engaged in battling injustice and repression in their own country. Even a cursory survey of issues of Otechestvennye zapiski published in the s and s clearly reveals its political bent.
The work of a female author from an oppressed culture, the subject matter of The Rebecca Rioter was ideally suited to publication by a journal that sought to highlight the struggles against injustice waged by the working classes, while Chloe Arguelle drew attention to the frivolous and indolent existence of the social elite. We are unaware of any correspondence relating to Dillwyn, so the best evidence that The Rebecca Rioter was well received is the fact that the decision was quickly made to translate Chloe Arguelle.
Otechestvennye zapiski drew its private subscribers from a broad section of Russian society. The price of an individual subscription to the journal put it beyond the means of most, but it was common practice for subscription funds to be raised corporately and each issue shared among its subscribers. Thus, as is usual for literary journals, the number of its readers far exceeded its actual subscribers.
By far the commonest means of access to the national journals was through the public library network. In the number of public libraries in the Russian empire stood at almost six hundred, and surviving statistics from these libraries show that Otechestvennye zapiski was one of the most popular of all the journals borrowed.
Although most libraries were to be found in the major towns of western and central Russia, they also existed in more remote or sparsely populated parts of the empire such as Siberia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Mikhailovsky, made in , that the journal had about , readers. Although the answers to these questions may never be known for sure, the available evidence does allow for informed conjecture. In an invaluable article on foreign works in Otechestvennye zapiski, I.
Despite this, the list of regular translators from the English given by Foote, when considered alongside other circumstantial evidence, allows us to venture a preference for certain names. Among the contributors to Otechestvennye zapiski were several women, two of whom, E. Likhacheva and M. Tsebrikova, certainly knew English. Like Dillwyn, these writers were committed suffragists and feminists likely to have been sympathetic to a fellow female author although Amy published as E.
In all probability these translators and literary critics would have picked up on the feminist subtext of The Rebecca Rioter. One problem with our guess that Tsebrikova was the translator is that her signed contributions to translations published in Otechestvennye zapiski seem to tail off in the mid s, while her colleague Likhacheva was certainly active in Nevertheless, while we must emphasise that this evidence is purely circumstantial, it does not seem unreasonable to speculate that Tsebrikova or perhaps Likhacheva are likely to have translated The Rebecca Rioter and Chloe Arguelle.
Nevertheless, the version of The Rebecca Rioter that appeared in Otechestvennye zapiski has been shorn of some of its most subversive passages, and these omissions will repay closer scrutiny. We will divide our discussion to concentrate on class conflict and challenges to authority, and Welsh identity and nationalism. In The Rebecca Rioter, the enforcement of poaching laws by magistrates with a vested interest in keeping the poor off their land is compared to the acts of enclosure which similarly undermined the rights of the poor in favour of the governing, property-owning classes. When God made the land He put them into it just like the blackberries, and the mushrooms, and such like, for the good of everyone who lives there, and I cannot see what right any man has to take possession of them and call them his own.
Why they are common property — just like any moor or common is common property … and which no man has a right to enclose and shut up from the rest The people of Killay are identified as poachers on several occasions and the common on the edge of the village is significant for being the place where the rioters meet in advance of their attacks.
Although it is a lawless place, where Evan witnesses a brutal murder, Fairwood common is also a site of resistance. On the things without which they cannot live? Spring provides a great opportunity to gather outdoors. Contact: Angella Foster, afoster greenbeltmd. For more information, contact Angella Foster. The minimum age requirement for all classes should be met by the first class meeting. Helpful hints for getting your young performer ready for class at: www. This parent-child playgroup offers creative free play and activities. Each class concludes with instructor-led rhymes, action songs and finger-plays.
Dance Together is a movement class for children ages and a participating adult. Children who are not yet walking are permitted to accompany participating adult and sibling. This is a fun, upbeat exploration of movement, music and storytelling intended to help caregivers and young children incorporate dance, movement games and rhythm play into their daily life. Participating adults and children should come dressed comfortably and ready to move in bare feet. This parent-child class encourages your child to practice balance and coordination through creative play that supports social interaction and offers age appropriate activities and games in a fun and safe environment.
If you are looking to get your young child oriented with Contact: Amanda Demos Larsen, team sports and the concept of sportsmanship, then this is the program for you. This class will cover a variety of sports, including soccer, t-ball and pillo polo, with an emphasis on alarsen greenbeltmd. Families may enter and leave any time during the hour as children's attention spans will vary. This is a parent-child activity; caregivers must enroll, attend and actively participate. When registering: section 1 is for children; section 2 is for caregivers.
Children must be fully pooy trained before they are eligible to register. Registraaon is ongoing and space is limited! Aspiring directors and choreographers will learn what it takes to make their own dances, costume their work and bring it to life in front of an audience. In-studio performance on Friday, May 24, pmpm. Recommended for young performers with at least two years previous dance experience. Uniform: Girls — black leotard and pink footless or convertible tights.
Boys — black leggings with a plain black t-shirt. Uniform will serve as the base costume for the in-studio performance. Does your child have a lot of energy to burn when they leave school? Keep your child active, with the After School Fit Club. Registration for this program is required, but there is no registration fee. Registration for this class will be held at the Greenbelt Youth Center the first night of class.
For more information please call A weekly program of creative play and expression provided at Greenbelt Elementary. Caregivers are encouraged to attend the final class meeting to participate in an art project. Siblings may sign up for the same class. Practice drawing and learn the elements of design. The culminating project will be to design and screen-print an original t-shirt! Students will provide the t-shirt; all other materials will be provided. This class is an opportunity for teens and older children to advance their ceramic hand-building skills.
Use slump molds, hump molds, pinch pots, slabs, coils, and texture tools! Learn about glazes! Expand your skills while you create sculptures and functional pottery. Good for beginning teens or students who have completed Children's Ceramic Hand-building and are ready to learn new skills. All materials provided. Discover the creative possibilities of the potter's wheel. Personalized attention enables students to follow their imagination while cultivating technical skills.
Clay is provided for participants under age Learn how to hand sew and use a sewing machine. Students will make flannel pajama pants and a zipper pouch. Students with some prior sewing experience may also make a stuffed animal. Sewing machines, iron and ironing board, patterns, pins, needles, and scissors will be supplied, but students will bring their own fabric and thread. With a recommendation from their instructor, current students can enjoy independent access to the ceramic studio during select hours. This add-on program is open to qualified youth who are concurrently enrolled in one of these spring classes: Ceramic Hand-building afterschool ; Homeschool Ceramics Hand-building ; Pottery on the Wheel afterschool ; or Homeschool Ceramics - Potter's Wheel This is not instructional time but an adult studio monitor will be present.
Recycled clay is provided. Build and create! Use your brain and imagination! Students will learn a variety of hand-building and decorating techniques by creating pots and sculptures. An opportunity for parents and children to work together in the studio! Adults who are enrolled in Ceramics Open Studio or a winter class that includes open studio privileges may bring children ages 8 and up to select open studio hours.
Participating children must be concurrently enrolled in a spring ceramics class and accompanied in the studio by their participating adult. Limit: two children per adult per visit. Children under 8 may receive special permission from their instructor to participate as well.
Recycled clay is provided for participants under age Drop your kids with us, while you have a relaxing night out! Your child ren will enjoy art activities, a pizza dinner and a movie! You are welcome to drop your child ren off for all or part of the time. Dinner will be served at pm. All children must be potty trained in order to participate.
Find your balance! Learn to balance on rola-bolas, the walking spool, unicycles, and stilts. All participants are taught at their individual skill level, from beginners to experienced unicyclists and stilt-walkers. Learn to juggle scarves, balls, clubs, diablo, poi, hoops, and flower sticks.
All participants are taught at their individual skill level, from beginners to experienced jugglers. With Charlie's help, soon everything's up in the air! In addition to the traditional aftercare program, Greenbelt Recreation will also offer Storybook Theater, Clay at the End of the Day, and a Tennis Clinic for campers that enjoy a more structured and thematic end to the camp day. Look for the Camp Brochure on the city website at www. Take on the potter's wheel and learn the fundamental skills to create and decorate your own pots and sculpture.
Children may participate by themselves; caregivers can register, too! Clay is provided at no cost for children under Please contact Beth Fendlay at bfendlay greenbeltmd. Learn a variety of hand-building and decorating techniques by creating pots and sculpture. We'll make a Nick cave soundsuits , and sculpt with found objects a la Vanessa German. We will also explore more traditional folk arts, such as Indian rangoli and colonial silhouettes. Everyone has some drawing experience, even if it was way back in elementary school! In this class we will take your past experience and push it to the next level!
Students will work in sketchbooks as well as produce large scale drawings. Each class will focus on both traditional and experimental exercises to improve your drawing skills and help you find your own artistic voice. Includes Visual Arts Open Studio. You will learn the basic concept of joinery by making a picture frame with lap joints. The course will begin with an explanation on how to evaluate a tool before purchasing it. The course will include demonstrations on how to put a razor sharp edge on a chisel, how to use marking gauges to square the wood, and how to chalk fit a joint.
All the work will be done using hand tools exclusively. Participants will be required to purchase one chisel after the first class. This class is appropriate for students with no wood working experience or for woodworkers interested in replacing their power tools with hand tools. Participants will make a small stained glass hanging using the copper foil technique. The goal is to learn to cut, foil, and solder a stained glass piece into a finished product.
Particular emphasis will be placed on developing and practicing the skills needed to score and break glass, as this is a challenging skill. The supplies will include a pattern for a square or diamond design, as well as glass and tools. This class is intended for students who have participated in Stained Glass: Winter Workshop ,2, ,2 or Stained Glass: Geometric Hanging The goal is to apply our knowledge of cutting, foiling, and soldering to a more advanced piece that requires curved cuts, as well as different sized and shaped irregular pieces.
Emphasis will be placed on making more difficult cuts. The supplies will include abstract and flower patterns, as well as glass and tools. Learn traditional watercolor techniques and vocabulary while cultivating your creativity. This class is designed for students who participated in Level 1 Acrylic Painting or have some outside experience with Acrylics. You will be led step-by-step through a series of projects to teach you what you need to know about how to work in this versatile and rewarding medium.
Discover the joy of fluid acrylic paints! Embrace your inner artist by creating patterns and layering colors in Fluid Acrylics. Each participant will make a painting that is gallery-ready, wired, and perfect to take home and hang on your wall. Sally Davies will guide participants on a fun-filled morning exploring different techniques using Gel Plates and Fluid Acrylics. The class will experiment with layers of textures including leaves, netting, fabric, stencils, and fun rubber stamps.
Students are encouraged to bring in objects with surface textures - like Lego sheets, interesting leaves, bubble wrap, shells, or lace fabric - anything that has a patterned surface texture. All materials provided, but pack a lunch for yourself. Sally Davies is a local artist, teacher, graphic designer, and illustrator. Patrons who register for an eligible visual arts class will receive open studio access. Open studio includes independent use of the visual arts studios during Community Center hours whenever the rooms are not reserved for other classes and events.
Participants will receive a spring studio calendar with dates and times of reservations; dates and times are subject to change during the session. Ideal for painting, drawing, fiber arts and crafts. Work alone, or arrange to meet up with fellow participants for more sociable studio time. New participants must meet with the Studio Manager for an orientation before using the space; contact Beth Fendlay at bfendlay greenbeltmd.
Contact: Amanda Demos Larsen, , alarsen greenbeltmd. Learn techniques for creating your own sprig molds and applying sprigs to your ware. Sprigs are small decorations that you apply to the surface of a piece to create a relief effect. Also learn techniques for creating relief designs with slip and with applied clay that enhance glaze flow on sloped or vertical surfaces. For each of the two classes, students will bring one to two pieces of smooth leatherhard ware wheel thrown, hand-built, or tile to work on, plus a small amount of wet clay on the first night to use in making sprig molds.
There will be additional instruction about how to glaze relief designs most effectively. This mini class is open to students who can create their own ware. This technique can create either subtle designs or can result in more colorful and textured designs. Students will bring one to two pieces of smooth leatherhard ware wheel thrown, hand-built, or tile to work on the first night, and for the second night, will bring one to two pieces of smooth bone-dry completely dry ware.
Students will bring one to two pieces of smooth leatherhard ware wheel thrown, hand-built, or tile to the first class. Ideally, bring pieces that are flat or shallow tile, platter, or plate OR cylindrical; these shapes are easiest to learn on. Thank you! With roots in centuries-old Japan, Raku is a method of fastfiring ceramic art outdoors with beautiful and surprising results. Bring up to five bisque pieces to the glazing session. Firing will take place outside of the Greenbelt Aquatic and Fitness Center.
Enroll for multiple slots in the class in order to fire more work. Clay purchased separately.
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This class is intended for first-time throwers and those with very limited experience. Group instruction is combined with individual support.
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Ceramics Open Studio included. Use of a personal shelf is not guaranteed. A good class for Level 1 "graduates" and potters with basic skills who have not thrown for a while. First-time throwers may also participate if unable to attend the Level 1 class. Group instruction will allow students to work more independently as the class progresses. Includes Ceramics Open Studio and use of a shelf. Group instruction combined with individual support.
This class is for students new to hand-building techniques. Students will learn the techniques to make cups, bowls, plates, and other useful objects by using their hands and hand tools. They will learn three-dimensional forming processes, how to join pieces of clay together to build a structure, and various methods of decorating functional pieces. Beginners and all levels welcome. The Stream offers a rich and lively source for breaking news, Christian inspiration and conservative commentary while challenging the worst in the mainstream media.
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