Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Alternative Names. Portuguese Spanish 11 English 2 German 2. University of North Carolina Press. June 30, Wright, Marie Robinson 9 January A national museum is a museum maintained by a state. In many countries it denotes a museum run by the central government, and often is restricted to a few museums, mostly in the capital, while other museums are run by regional or local government, or foundations. In other countries a much larger number of museums are run by the central government, some quite small.
Some national museums use the term in their name, but others do not; some museums just adopt the term as a matter of branding. This art movement questioned the restraints that came with using words and replaced words with pictures. She did this years before pursuing a formal education in art. She did not earn her degree in graphic design until The did so by replacing words with pictures, paintings, drawings, etc. Despite facing many initial difficulties, the Academy was established and took its place at the forefront of Brazilian arts education in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Academy became the center of the diffusion of new aesthetic trends and the teaching of modern artistic techniques.
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It eventually became one of the principal arts institutions under the patronage of Emperor Dom Pedro II. Origins Lebreton The foundation of art schools in Brazil came from, according to Rafael Denis, Francophile initiatives headed by. Flag of Rio de Janeiro Coat of arms of Rio de Janeiro The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro — capital and most populous city of Rio de Janeiro state, and the second most populous city in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro was founded in by the Portuguese as part of the Portuguese Empire.
It was the capital and political center of Brazil, where events like the Proclamation of the Republic took place. Rio de Janeiro is known for its cultural riches, such as Carnival, samba and bossa nova, beaches such as Copacabana and Ipanema, and also for the Christ the Redeemer statue overlooking the city.
It is located in the centre of Porto Alegre. Its eclectic building, national heritage, is one of the most noteworthy historic buildings in Porto Alegre. Its design is usually attributed to Theodor Wiederspahn, a German-Brazilian architect, although important local historian and artist Fernando Corona ascribes it to Germano Gundlach. History The museum was formally created by the state government through Decree , in , without any seat or collection.
Malagoli started gathering some paintings dispersed among the state institutions and, provided with funds. Life Schwabe was born in Altona, Holstein, and moved to Geneva, Switzerland at an early age, where he received the Swiss nationality. After studying art in Geneva, he relocated to Paris as a young man, where he worked as a wallpaper designer, and he became acquainted with Symbolist artists, musicians Guillaume Lekeu, Vincent d'Indy an writers.
His poster for the first Salon is an important symbolic work of the idealist new art. His paintings typically featured mythological and allegorical themes with a very personal and idealist vision and a social i. In he moved to Germany in order to study in the Grossherrzoglisch Badische Kunstschule, in Karlsruhe. Tempora mutantur, The monument to Floriano Peixoto is in the foreground. The Municipal Theatre is at the background left.
Today's square started to gain its current shape in the early 20th century, when the Brazilian government considered that Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of the Republic, needed to be completely overhauled. The centrepiece of the reform was a large boulevard — the Avenida Central, now Avenida Rio Branco - which was bui. Latin American art is the combined artistic expression of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico, as well as Latin Americans living in other regions.
Universidade Anhanguera-Uniderp [Biblioteca On-line]
The art has roots in the many different indigenous cultures that inhabited the Americas before European colonization in the 16th century. The indigenous cultures each developed sophisticated artistic disciplines, which were highly influenced by religious and spiritual concerns. Their work is collectively known and referred to as Pre-columbian art. The blending of Native American, African and European cultures has resulted in a unique mestizo tradition. Most sets of casta paintings were individual canvases showing only one family. During the colonial period, a mixture of ind.
Carlota was born in Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil. She studied in Escola Nacional de Belas Artes under the great master and director of the school Rodolfo Bernardelli — , an innovator in the teaching of arts in Brazil. Carlota de Camargo Nascimento signed her works as Loty.
Taunay, Afonso de E. (Afonso de Escragnolle) [WorldCat Identities]
She was one of the pioneering women to do sculpture in Brazil, an art generally confined to the male sex. Among other exhibitions of relevance to the panomora of the ar. The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural backgrounds, possessing the potential to create disharmony within the previous culture.
Historically, it is often used to describe the assimilation of immigrants to the United States. The desirability of assimilation and the melting pot model has been reconsidered by proponents of multiculturalism, who have suggested alternative metaphors to describe th. Mulatto is a term that is used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent, or to describe a mixed race person in general.
Historically it was used as a racial classification, though it is now chiefly considered to be derogatory or offensive. The English term "mulatto" is derived from the Spanish and Portuguese mulato. The origin of mulato is uncertain. Forbes suggests it originated in the Arabic term muwallad, which means "a person of mixed ancestry".
Muwallad is derived from the r. Racial whitening, or "whitening" branqueamento , is an ideology that was widely accepted in Brazil between and , as the solution to the "Negro problem. This ideology gained its support from two scientific racism beliefs that were prominent during this time. One being social Darwinism, which applied Darwin's theory of natural selection to a society or race, and the other being Aryanism, the belief that the "white" "Aryan" race was superior to all other cultures. By combining these two ideas, the white elites of the time believed that because "white" blood was superior it would inevitably "whiten" the inferior races' blo.
He is considered one of the very few impressionist painters of Brazil. He is considered the initiator of the art nouveau in Brazil. In he received a gold medal at the Academy. Portrait of Frans Post c. This article lists paintings executed by Frans Post , Dutch Golden Age artist who was the first European to paint landscapes of the Americas. Along with Albert Eckhout and Zacharias Wagener, Post was in charge of documenting the new Dutch colonies in South America, but while his companions were devoted to depicting the Brazilian flora, fauna, and people, he focused exclusively on the landscapes of the so-called "New Holland".
Nevertheless, the exoticism of his landscapes, rich in tropical details yet unknown to the European public, soon attracted the attent. In Brazil, she regularly participated in salons organized by the National School of Fine Arts between and In , she married Portuguese sculptor Rodolfo Pinto do Couto. References "Retrato de D.
Nicolina Vaz. Events in the year in Portugal. March Lisbon: Palas Editore. Noah damning Ham, 19th-century painting by Ivan Stepanovitch Ksenofontov The curse of Ham, which more accurately should be known as the curse upon Ham's son Canaan, was imposed by the biblical patriarch Noah. The curse occurs in the Book of Genesis and concerns Noah's drunkenness and the accompanying shameful act perpetrated by Noah's son Ham, the father of Canaan. He was one of the first native-born Canadian artists whose works were directly influenced by the Old World's Impressionism of the s.
He was born in Arthabaska, Quebec in His father was an artist. He was a baritone, who studied music at the Conservatory of Music in Paris in He studied painting and sculpture at the Julian and Colarossi Academies. After his return to Quebec in , he established a studio in Montreal with classic interpretations of Canadian landscapes. He produced many impressionist paintings of the Quebec landscape, as well as portraits, nudes, historical paintings and later sculpt. Biography His father was a magistrate. Soon after, he and his new bride Georgina a classmate left for France, where they remained for five years.
Egypt: The Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
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China: The Gate of Divine Might, the northern gate. China: The Shanghai Museum. Singapore: The ArtScience Museum. The exhibition of royal carriages, ca. The museum has one of the finest collections of historical carriages in the world and is one of the most visited museums of the city. Several Portuguese artists decorated the interior of the building with paintings and tile azulejo panels. The inner arena is 50 m long and 17 m wide, and was used for training horses and for horse riding exhibitions and games, which could be watched from its balconies by the Portuguese royal family.
Visions of the Nation in Imperial Brazil: Arts and Celebrations
Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Later, in , it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. The museum is located in the western wing of the Jeronimos Monastery where the monks had their dormitory. The museum is built in the neo-manueline style and was officially opened in With the support of the politician Bernardino Machado, a legal decree for the creation of a National Ethnographic Museum was established on 20 December The museum was given the international "Genio Protector da.
Gretta Sarfaty, The common definitions of cities revolve around spatial dimensions in the sense that a city is a specifically ordered space produced by and for humans. But how do we account for time in this perspective? Does it make sense to include the temporal dimension? Taking this, the following study starts from the assumption that temporal and spatial dimensions are intrinsically connected and will be as such analysed as spatio-temporalities.
As will be shown, appropriation can be understood as a spatio-temporal practice par excellence. By doing this many of the linear-progressive histories told so far in urban historiography will be challenged. The foundation of new cities in the so-called New World of the Americas by the Iberians from the end of fifteenth century onwards has been ignored in the mainstream of Western urban history, not to mention the rich pre-European urban history in these areas.
For the Castilian — in contrast to the Portuguese crown, to be treated later on — one has to sketch the foundation of new cities as the central spatial technique for the conquest of the area later called Spanish America 2. They translated Castilian and Islamic approaches deriving from the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula and applied them to the spatial situation in the New World: they founded cities via so-called capitulaciones as nuclei for dominating their surroundings and as centres of their colonial aims. Many of these cities were built on locally known central points.
As such the new foundations of cities in the Americas are best described as acts of appropriating established ruling practices from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The colonializing aims of the Castilians are represented in an ostensive way in the planning and construction of the new cities. The Spanish established model cities had a central place Plaza de Armas where all important civil and ecclesiastical institutions were spatially merged.
From this centre, a centripetal and rectangular grid spread into the surroundings and the urban spaces remained most often without walls — the last unthinkable in sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe. It entailed well ordered, linearized cities within an un-sketched because unknown? As a further example, you can find this model in the Plano Fundacional de San Juan de la Frontera today Argentina from Kagan, , p.
Recently, Horst Pietschmann has argued convincingly against a common Eurocentric interpretation that these Castilian city-foundations were, in the best sense, pure European claims for establishing order. Nevertheless, or maybe better because of this, from an European perspective the New World can be best described as a laboratory for urban design — as did for example Spanish American cartographer Barbara Mundy —, and the relation between Spanish urban and other spaces as spaces where coloniality was re produced.
These cities and their maps, like the planos fundacionales , reflect the Spanish desire to represent and implement an idealized if not utopian order onto the New World. Despite many forms of entanglement between the indigenous and the Spanish in the cities — in the following centuries many studies stated a growing mestizaje —, the cities kept their status as European-oriented centres within an unknown American environment. In the wars and conflicts which ended during the s and s in the independence of Spanish American states from Spain, these conflicts and the confrontation between Spanish cities and other spaces became crucial.
The urban people metaphorically built up the formerly unrealized city walls. Even if new studies have insisted that this dichotomy has been exaggerated, and that, especially in the late colonial epoch, Portuguese city-planning converged with the Spanish, Brazilian urban street life remained as a sphere of the poor, or — as the anthropologist Fraya Frehse concretized — a sphere of manual labourer. As told by an old Brazilian adage, wealthy women had the possibility to go down the street only three times in their lives: for baptism, for their wedding and for their own funeral.
Instead, until the end of seventeenth century it was the only urban area away from the coast, oriented to the hinterland, established by the Jesuits for their proselytising missions. Even males from wealthier parts of society tried to avoid the street. Following these contemporaneous reports, street life remained not only poor, but also rural. On every corner one meet caipiras , meaning villagers, in many backyards one could see chickens, in the streets, carriages led by cattle for supplying the city with milk, and so forth. For answering these questions, I will use the conception of appropriation established by Henri Lefebvre.
Appropriation is — as shown elsewhere — an essential part of this threefold model Dorsch, But, in a broader sense, he combined both subtypes and contrasted them sharply against domination as a practice of corruption and denaturalization 8. It is exactly this moment in which urban life becomes — following Lefebvre — crucial.
In the last third of nineteenth century, the often-described coffee boom, resulting in a massive immigration from Europe and Northern parts of Brazil, as well as the widening of the scope to other Atlantic regions, in many areas of life the former Jesuit settlement had turned into a prospering metropolis within a very short period of time Even if there were no linear ways, many of these new Paulistanos from different social contexts, appropriated the streets in different manners compared to the dominant traditional forms of avoiding the urban public sphere.
Many historical studies have described and analysed this complex change practised by the new Paulistanos, but also by those living there since longer time. For various reasons, an increasing number of people now spent a lot of time in the streets.